Global geographical and historical overview of cyanotoxin distribution and cyanobacterial poisonings

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Publikationens författare: Z. Svirčev, D. Lalić, G. Bojadžija Savić, N. Tokodi, D. Drobac Backović, L. Chen, J. Meriluoto, G. A. Codd
Förläggare: Springer
Publiceringsår: 2019
Tidskrift: Archives of Toxicology
Volym: 93
Nummer: 9
Artikelns första sida, sidnummer: 2429
Artikelns sista sida, sidnummer: 2481


Cyanobacteria are photoautotrophic organisms which occur in aquatic and
terrestrial environments. They have the potential to produce toxins
which pose a threat to human and animal health. This review covers the
global distribution of the common cyanotoxins and related poisoning
cases. A total of 468 selected articles on toxic cyanobacteria, dating
from the earliest records until 2018, were reviewed. Most of the
articles were published after 2000 (72%; 337 out of 468), which is
consistent with the recent growth in interest in the analysis,
toxinology and ecotoxicology of cyanotoxins. Animal and/or human
poisoning cases were described in more than a third of the overall
publications (38%; 177 out of 468). The reviewed publications showed
that there were 1118 recorded identifications of major cyanotoxins in
869 freshwater ecosystems from 66 countries throughout the world.
Microcystins were the most often recorded cyanotoxins worldwide (63%;
699 out of 1118), followed by cylindrospermopsin (10%; 107 out of 1118),
anatoxins (9%; 100 out of 1118), and saxitoxins (8%; 93 out of 1118).
Nodularins were the most rarely recorded cyanotoxins (2%; 19 out of
1118); however, there were also reports where cyanotoxins were not
analysed or specified (9%; 100 out of 1118). The most commonly found
toxic cyanobacterial genera were Microcystis spp. (669 reports), Anabaena spp. (397 reports), Aphanizomenon spp. (100 reports), Planktothrix spp. (98 reports), and Oscillatoria
spp. (75 reports). Furthermore, there were 183 recorded cyanotoxin
poisonings of humans and/or animals. Out of all toxic cyanobacterial
blooms reviewed in this paper, the highest percentage of associated
poisonings was found in North and Central America (39%; 69 cases out of
179), then Europe (20%; 35 out of 179), Australia including New Zealand
(15%; 27 out of 179), and Africa (11%; 20 out of 179), while the lowest
percentage was related to Asia (8%; 14 cases out of 179) and South
America (8%; 14 cases out of 179). Events where only animals were known
to have been affected were 63% (114 out of 182), whereas 32% (58 out of
182) of the investigated events involved only humans. A historical
overview of human and animal poisoning episodes associated with
cyanobacterial blooms is presented. Further, geographical data on the
occurrence of cyanotoxins and related poisonings based on the available
literature are shown. Some countries (mainly European) have done very
intensive research on the occurrence of toxic cyanobacteria and
cyanotoxins, and reported related ecotoxicological observations, while
in some countries the lack of data is apparent. The true global extent
of cyanotoxins and associated poisonings is likely to be greater than
found in the available literature, and it can be assumed that
ecotoxicological and hygienic problems caused by toxic cyanobacteria may
occur in more environments.


Senast uppdaterad 2020-26-09 vid 03:30