Sex differences in aggression

A3 Book section, Chapters in research books

Internal Authors/Editors

Publication Details

List of Authors: Kaj Björkqvist, Karin Österman
Editors: Jane L. Ireland, Philip Birch, Carol A. Ireland
Publication year: 2018
Publisher: Routledge
Book title: The Routledge International Handbook of Human Aggression: Current Issues and Perspectives
Title of series: Routledge International Handbooks
Start page: 19
End page: 30
ISBN: 9781138668188
eISBN: 9781315618777


This chapter examines mainly same-sex aggression in adolescent peer
groups and in sexual competition between adult women. Reviews from the
1980s were more cautious, and while they agreed that males were
physically more aggressive than females, they saw sex differences in
aggression to be a question of quality rather than quantity. The chapter
suggests that research to date had an overemphasis on physical
aggression, while other forms, most notably indirect aggression, which
might be a more typical form of female aggression, had been overlooked.
K. Bjorkqvist, K. Osterman, and A. Kaukiainen suggested that physical,
verbal, and indirect aggression could be conceived of not only as three
different strategies of aggression, but also as three different stages
in human development, partly following, partly overlapping each other.
The theory about the development of aggressive strategies suggests a
correlation between indirect aggression and social intelligence. A link
between testosterone and aggression is well established among subhuman

Last updated on 2020-26-02 at 03:36