Characteristics of hot water extracts from the bark of cultivated willow (Salix sp.)

A1 Journal article (refereed)

Internal Authors/Editors

Publication Details

List of Authors: Jinze Dou, Wenyang Xu, Jari J. Koivisto, Justin K. Mobley, Dharshana Padmakshan, Martin Kögler, Chunlin Xu, Stefan Willför, John Ralph, Tapani Vuorinen
Publisher: ACS
Publication year: 2018
Journal: ACS Sustainable Chemistry and Engineering
Journal acronym: ACS Sustainable Chem. Eng.
Volume number: 6
Issue number: 4
Start page: 5566
End page: 5573
Number of pages: 15
ISSN: 2168-0485
eISSN: 2168-0485


Willow bark is a rich source of heterogeneous polyphenolic compounds and a potential feedstock for biorefinery processes aiming at chemicals and fiber production. Here, mild hot water treatment of willow hybrid Karin was studied to find a practical means of isolating its non-cell-wall components for their utilization in a willow biorefinery proposed to aid valorization of the willow biomass. A short aqueous treatment of the bark at 80 degrees C liberated the extract in >20% yield under unpressurized conditions. The extract was characterized using mainly gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and one- and two-dimensional NMR techniques. Authentic analytes were applied to confirm the identification and quantification of the main components that were picein, (+)-catechin, triandrin, glucose, and fructose. Fructose was converted into 5-hydroxymethylfurfural in an acidic treatment which led to its condensation with the phenolic components and formation of a recalcitrant precipitate that should be avoided.


5-Hydroxymethylfurfural, (+)-Catechin, Fructose, Picein, Triandrin, Willow bark

Last updated on 2020-14-07 at 05:57