Structure-Property Studies on a New Family of Halogen Free Flame Retardants Based on Sulfenamide and Related Structures

A1 Journal article (refereed)

Internal Authors/Editors

Publication Details

List of Authors: Tirri T, Aubert M, Pawelec W, Holappa A, Wilen CE
Publisher: MDPI AG
Publication year: 2016
Journal: Polymers
Journal acronym: POLYMERS-BASEL
Volume number: 8
Issue number: 10
Number of pages: 11
ISSN: 2073-4360


A wide variety of molecules containing S-N or S-N-S cores were synthesized, and their flame retardant properties in polypropylene (PP), low density polyethylene (LDPE) and polystyrene (PS) were investigated. In addition, polymers or oligomers bearing the sulfenamide functionality (SN) were also synthesized. It was shown that this radical generator family based on sulfenamides is very versatile in terms of structural modifications, and the thermal decomposition range can be easily adjusted by changing the R groups attached to the core. The thermal stabilities of the different sulfenamides were examined by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Radicals generated by the homolytic cleavage of the S-N or S-N-S bonds at an elevated temperature can effectively interact with the intermediate products of polymer thermolysis and provide excellent flame retardant properties. The choice of most suitable SN-structure varies depending on the polymer type. For polypropylene DIN 4102-1 B2 and UL94 VTM-2 classifications were achieved with only 0.5 to 1 wt % of sulfenamide, and, in some cases, no flaming dripping was observed. Also for LDPE thin films, sulfenamides offered the DIN 4102-1 B2 rating at low dosage. In the case of polystyrene, the very stringent UL94 V-0 classification was even achieved at a loading of 5 wt % of sulfenamide.


flame retardant, halogen free, polypropylene, polystyrene, radical generator, sulfenamide

Last updated on 2020-18-02 at 02:00