Amphiphilic Spruce Galactoglucomannan Derivatives Based on Naturally-Occurring Fatty Acids

A1 Journal article (refereed)

Internal Authors/Editors

Publication Details

List of Authors: Daniel Dax, Patrik Eklund, Jarl Hemming, Jawad Sarfraz, Peter Backman, Chunlin Xu, and Stefan Willför
Publication year: 2013
Journal: BioResources
Journal acronym: BIORESOURCES
Volume number: 8
Issue number: 3
Start page: 3771
End page: 3790
Number of pages: 20
ISSN: 1930-2126


A class of nonionic polysaccharides-based surfactants were synthesised from O-acetyl galactoglucomannan (GGM), water-soluble hemicelluloses from spruce, using naturally-occurring saturated fatty acids, CH3(CH2)(n)COOH (n = 7, 12, and 16). Hemicelluloses can be recovered from waste-streams of papermaking and agricultural processes or isolated by hot water extraction of plant tissues integrated into a biorefinery process. Fatty acids can be recovered as byproducts of the agricultural and food industries. Different synthesis routes were applied to yield amphiphilic derivatives with either a grafted or block structure. Fatty acids activated with 1,1'-carbonyldiimidazole (CDI) were grafted to the backbone of GGM molecules on their hydroxyl groups. Alternatively, synthesised amino-activated fatty acids using ethylenediamine were reacted with the reducing end of GGM. By adjusting the reagent ratios, GGM-based surfactants with different hydrophilic to hydrophobic ratios were prepared. Their surface activity was assessed by measuring the surface tension in water. This study presents an approach to design carbohydrate-based surfactants using naturally-occurring fatty acids that may find potential applications in such areas as food, cosmetic, and paint formulations.


Amphiphilic, Fatty acid, Galactoglucomannan, Hemicelluloses, Reductive amination, Surface tension, Surfactant

Last updated on 2020-13-08 at 04:22