Macro-Molecules as a Source of Levulinic Acid

A1 Journal article (refereed)

Internal Authors/Editors

Publication Details

List of Authors: Johan Ahlkvist, Päivi Mäki-Arvela, Jyri-Pekka Mikkola
Publication year: 2014
Journal: International Review of Chemical Engineering
Journal acronym: IRECHE
Volume number: 6
Issue number: 1
Start page: 44
End page: 58
eISSN: 2035-1763


The production of levulinic acid from biomass and macromolecules has been reviewed. It was concluded that the most important parameters in the one-pot hydrolysis of biomass, also including dehydration of glucose to hydroxymethylfurfural as well as its further rehydration to formic and levulinic acids, respectively, are the reaction temperature, initial reactant concentration, acid type as well as the raw material applied.
The theoretical maximum yield can hardly be obtained due to formation of humins.Further, the optimum reaction conditions as well as the influence of the catalyst and biomass type are also discussed

Last updated on 2020-30-05 at 06:03